Examples of block quote metadata

This is a list of accepted changes to block quotes that are difficult or impossible to achieve with the current definition of <blockquote>. For more information please read the accompanying article Blockquote problems and solutions.

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition covers quotations and dialogue in chapter 11. Changes to block quotations it discusses include (mainly from 11.8):

  • Changing quotation marks e.g. from single to double
  • Changing the initial letter case, e.g. from capital to lower case
  • Changing or omitting punctuation at the end of a quotation or beside ellipsis points, e.g. from a period to a comma
  • Omitting notes and note reference marks in the original, unless this affects meaning
  • Adding note references
  • Correcting obvious typographic errors silently, although “the reader must so be informed in a note, in a preface, or elsewhere”
  • Indicating typographic errors (intentional or otherwise) in the source using sic
  • Changing archaic ʃ to s, v to u etc.
  • Adding bracketed adjustments to the original quote (to indicate changed tense, capitalisation etc)
  • Adding stage directions, description, interjections (such as laughter) etc. to a dialogue or interview that may not be present in the original, especially if the source is a performance, movie, debate etc.
  • Adding ellipses to indicate the omission of a word, phrase, sentence or more from the passage quoted
  • Insertions to clarify meaning and provide missing words or letters, or clarify a translation with the original word or phrase
  • Noting stylistic changes such as the addition of italics to emphasise part of a quote, or conversely to point out that the italics were present in the original

In addition, quote metadata may appear at the end of the last line or immediately below (but visually associated with) a block quotation, including:

  • Attribution, as a full citation, short citation, or shortened reference such as page number
  • Notes regarding author changes, the quote’s source material, small print etc.
  • Footnote references

Examples of inline quote metadata in the Chicago Manual of Style include:

  • Bracketed and italicised notes describing the difference between two versions of the same block quote (11.14)
  • Inline short citation (11.17, 11.26)
  • Inline full citation (11.73, 11.81)
  • Page number as a shortened reference (11.82)
  • Adding intervening text mid-quote in brackets (11.26)
  • Italicised stage directions, with and without parentheses, in a dramatic transcript (11.49)
  • Italicised, bracketed interjection in an interview transcript (11.50)
  • Ellipses to indicate missing prose (11.55, 11.57, 11.60, 11.61)
  • Brackets to indicate change in capitalisation (11.63)
  • Ellipses to indicate the beginning and end of a a quotation (11.65)
  • Bracketed notes to annotate missing, guessed at or illegible words, along with ellipses or 2-em dashes to indicate gaps (11.66, 11.67)
  • Insertions in brackets to clarify meaning and provide missing words or letters (11.68)
  • Italicised sic. in brackets to indicate a word intentionally misspelled in the original (11.69)
  • “Italics added” appended to an inline citation, and added as a bracketed note inline immediately after the italicised text (11.70)

Examples in the Chicago Manual of Style of quote metadata on a line immediately after the block quote, but being visually associated with the block quote (e.g. sharing the block quote’s font-size, font-family, and/or line-height, line break after metadata but not before to visually separate from following prose etc) include:

  • Short citation (11.28, 11.40, 11.83)
  • Shortened reference (11.84)
  • Translation of foreign language quote in square brackets (11.87)

The following Shakespeare examples are all sourced via the links at General Shakespeare Criticism, and are styled to match the source. Suspected changes and additions to the source material made by original authors are <mark>ed. Most of these are impossible to achieve in compliance with the current spec.

Inline examples

Troilus.–I am giddy ; expectation whirls me round.
                    The imaginary relish is so sweet
                    That it enchants my sense ; what will it be
                    When that the watery palate tastes indeed
                    Love's thrice repurèd nectar? Death, I fear me
                    Swooning destruction, or some joy too fine,
                    Too subtle-potent, tuned too sharp in sweetness,
                    For the capacity of my ruder powers :
                    I fear it much : and I do fear besides,
                    That I shall lose distinction in my joys ;
                    As doth a battle, when they charge on heaps
                    The enemy flying.Act iii. Scene 2.
Inline partially italicised act & scene information
Shakspere: a critical study of his mind and art by Edward Dowden, p25 (in Google Books)
Spirits are not finely touched
But to fine issues.     (Act I. Sc. i. L. 37-38)
Inline act, scene & line information in parentheses
Shakespeare by Edward Dowden, p126 (in Google Books)
“It is a common practice nowadays among a sort of shifting companions that run through every art and thrive by none, to leave the trade of noverint whereto they were born, and busy themselves with the endeavours of art, that could scarce Latinise their neck-verse if they should have need.”Nash, Preface to Greene’s Menaphon, 1589.
Citation with author name in small-caps
Shakespeare manual by Frederick Gard Fleay, p12 (in Google Books)
no one person can "create" a poetic diction. The most he can do is to embellish incidentally a relatively standard idiom. The main poetic effect is latent in the standard idiom, and it is the poet's business to bring it out. (McElderry 168)
Author name with page number in parentheses (full citation in footnotes)
Did Shakespeare Consciously Use Archaic English? by Mary Catherine Davidson
Plautius fearing the worst, and glad that he could hold
what he held, as was enjoyn’d him, sends to Claudius.
He who waited ready with a huge preparation, as if not
safe anough amidst the flowr of all his Romans, like a
great Eastern King, with armed Elephants, marches
through Gallia. (CPW 5:66, N. 1; my italics)
Abbreviated citation plus author note in parentheses (full citation in footnotes)
Poetical Historiography: Milton’s History of Britain as a Literary Text by James Egan
“That monster custom, who all sense doth eat
 Of habit's devil,” &c. not in Folio

                         “What a falling off was there !
 From me, whose love was of that dignity
 That it went hand in hand even with the vow
 I made to her in marriage, and to decline
 Upon a wretch.”
Inline note from author
Shakespeare manual by Frederick Gard Fleay, p19 (in Google Books)
Spirit is a most subtle vapour, which is expressed from the blood, and the instrument of the soul, to perform all his actions; a common tie or medium between the body and soul.13
Link to footnote
Shakespeare De-witched: A Response to Stephen Greenblatt by Inge Leimberg

Examples of quote metadata on a separate line

“Our pleasant Willy ah is dead of late,” &c.

Spenser, Tears of the Muses, 1590,
Right-aligned citation with author in small-caps, plus bonus inline note
Shakespeare manual by Frederick Gard Fleay, p19 (in Google Books)

... one of Shakspere's middle or later period. Take, again, two typical passages by way of illustration :

A league from Epidamnum had we sail’d
Before the always wind-obeying deep
Gave any tragic instance of our harm :
But longer did we not retain much hope ;
For what obscurèd light the heavens did grant
Did but convey unto our fearful minds
A doubtful warrant of immediate death.
(Comedy of Errors, Act I. Sc. i. L. 63-69)

The entire speech of Ægeon, from which this extract is made, consisting of over seventy lines, contains only ...

Citation in parentheses, right-aligned, visually associated with blockquote (same font-size and line-height as blockquote, margin below not above — surrounding text added to demonstrate this)
Shakespeare by Edward Dowden, p43 (in Google Books)
(act, scene and line number metadata treated the same way earlier in this book)
[…] If ere you heard him courting Lesbia's eyes
Say Courteous Sir, speaks he not movingly
From out some new pathetic tragedy?
He writes, he rails, he jests, he courts, what not,
And all from out his huge long-scrapèd stock
Of well-penn’d plays.”
Marston, Scourge of Villany
Satire x., 1598.

“A man, a man, a kingdom for a man.”

From the same, Satire vii.

“A hall, a hall, give room and foot it, girls.”

i. 5, 24 (not in first quarto).
Right-aligned citation over two lines, partial citation, and act, scene & line plus author note
— all from Shakespeare manual by Frederick Gard Fleay, p18 (in Google Books)